Laminin-2 deficiency causes peripheral myelination defects in human and mice [ — ]. In addition, the myelin sheath maintains a highly specialized region known as the paranode, the portion of each myelin segment that immediately flanks the node of Ranvier [ , ], and the paranode is highly enriched in putative membrane raft proteins [ — ]. Extrinsic cues provided by laminin may regulate myelination by modifying small GTPase signaling [ ]. Soluble signal from neurons induces transport of PLP from late endosomes to the plasma membrane [ ], probably via regulation of Rho GTPase activity [ ]. Durbeej M, Campbell KP. Role of Laminin and Dystroglycan in OLG Polarization, Differentiation, and Myelination Laminin-2 deficiency causes peripheral myelination defects in human and mice [ — ].
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How does the polarized localization of polarity proteins change in axonal injury inducing Schwann cell dedifferentiation? Endosomes of polarized HepG2 cells sort different sphingolipids into vesicles, which are destined to the basolateral and apical membrane, respectively [ ]. In addition, roles of galectin-9, sorting nexin 18 or FAPP2 in lipid raft clustering, and transport carrier generation associated with apical transport have been suggested [ 71 — 74 ]. One of the best studied interactions is between the APclathrin complex and the transferrin receptor TfnR , which occurs on the plasma membrane. Basolateral and somatodendritic sorting signals are often dominant over apical sorting signals.
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Developmental Neurobiology. The ultimate goal of this paper is to provide insights in the field of myelination by applying the information obtained in polarity study in other types of cells, especially in epithelial cells, to cell polarization of myelinating glia. Mature Sunbathing Nudist Resort. Extrinsic polarity cues from extracellular matrix ECM focus on dystroglycan function and are separately discussed at the final section. The last amateur videos.
Aberrant protein trafficking in Trembler suggests a disease mechanism for hereditary human peripheral neuropathies. Actually during the first postnatal week, clathrin-coated pits are prominently associated with rat myelin membranes, indicating that active exocytosis or endocytosis occurs during this maximal period of myelin formation [ ]. Most myelin proteins are transmembrane proteins and are thus synthesized at the ER. The myelinating glia, oligodendrocytes OLGs in central nervous system CNS and Schwann cells in peripheral nervous system PNS , form the myelin sheath, a multilayered membrane system enabling salutatory nerve impulse conduction and maintaining axonal integrity. American Journal of Human Genetics. Nature Reviews Neuroscience.